Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer Disease
Researchers at Oxford University in England examined the association between serum homocysteine concentration and the development and progression of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Average homocysteine concentrations were significantly higher among case subjects than among controls, and serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 were significantly lower. The odds of having clinically diagnosed AD were twice as great and the odds of having confirmed AD were four-and-a-half times greater among persons with the highest compared with the lowest concentrations of serum homocysteine, after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, and social status.
Low serum concentrations of folic acid were associated with a doubling of the odds of clinically diagnosed AD and a tripling of the odds of confirming AD, and low concentrations of vitamin B12 increased the odds of confirmed AD by more than fourfold. These findings demonstrate that elevated serum homocysteine and low concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 are associated with AD.
A case-control study of 164 patients, including 76 patients with histologically confirmed AD, showed that serum homocysteine concentrations were higher and serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were lower in these patients than in matched 108 control subjects.
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