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Deficiency in vitamin B6

Deficiency in vitamin B6

Proper Name: Pyridoxine Hydrochloride

Common Name: Vitamin B6

Evidence of Efficacy: statement to the effect of Vitamin B6 deficiency or imbalance plays a role in the symptoms of mood disorders. Observational and experimental studies have shown an association between vitamin B6 and aggression1, anxiety2,3,4, ADHD5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, bipolar disorder13,14, depression15, 16 ,17 ,18 ,19 ,20 ,21 ,22 ,23 ,24 ,25 ,26, obsessive compulsive disorder27,28, premenstrual syndrome29, 30, 31, 32, 33,3 4,3 5,36 ,37, 38, ,39 ,40, 41, 42,43 ,44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 ,5 1,52, 53,and schizophrenia54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59,6 0,6 1,62 ,63 ,64 .65


  1. Noted in McLaren DS. Clinical manifestations of nutritional disorders, in ME Shils, VR Young, Eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Seventh Edition. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1988.
  2. Heseker H, Kubler W, Pudel V, Westenhoffer J. Psychological disorders as early symptoms of a mild-moderate vitamin deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci 669:352-7, 1992.
  3. Hoes MJ et al. Hyperventilation syndrome, treatment with L-tryptophan and pyridoxine; Predictive value of xanthurenic acid excretion. J Orthomol Psychiatry 10(1):7-15, 1981.
  4. Buist RA. Anxiety neurosis: The lactate connection. Int Clin Nutr Rev 5:1-4, 1985.
  5. Coleman M et al. Serotonin in Down뭩 syndrome. Amsterdam, North Holland, 1973.
  6. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Niacin and vitamin B6 in mental functioning: a review of controlled trials in humans. Biol Psychiatry 29(9):931-41, 1991.
  7. Haslam RH, Dalby JT. Blood serotonin levels in the attention-deficit disorder. Letter. N Engl J Med 309(31):1328-9, 1983.
  8. Brenner A. The effects of megadoses of selected B complex vitamins on children with hyperkinesis: Controlled studies with long-term follow-up. J Learn Disabil 15(5):258-64, 1982.
  9. Klieger JA, Altshuler CH, Krakow L, Hollister L. Abnormal pyridoxine metabolism in toxemia of pregnancy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 166:288-96, 1969.
  10. Coleman M et al. A preliminary study of the effect of pyridoxine administration in a subgroup of hyperkinetic children: A double-blind crossover comparison with methylphenidate. Biol Psychiatry 14(5):741-51, 1979.
  11. Brenner A, Wapnir R. A pyridoxine-dependent behavioral disorder unmasked by Isoniazid. Am J Dis Child 132:773-6, 1978.
  12. Bhagavan HN et al. The effect of pyridoxine hydrochloride on blood serotonin and pyridoxal phosphate contents in hyperactive children. Pediatrics 55:437-41, 1975.
  13. Moller SE et al. Tryptophan availability in endogenous depression ?relation to efficacy of L-tryptophan treatment. Adv Biol Psychiatry 10:30-46, 1983.
  14. The pharmacokinetics of oral L-tryptophan: Effects of dose and concomitant pyridoxine, allopurinol or nicotinamide administration. Adv Biol Psychiatry 10:67-81, 1983.
  15. Noted in McLaren DS. Clinical manifestations of nutritional disorders, in ME Shils, VR Young, Eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Seventh Edition. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1988.
  16. Bell I et al. Complex vitamin patterns in geriatric and young adult inpatients with major depression. J Am Geriatr Soc 39:252-7, 1991.
  17. Stewart TW, Harrison W, Quitkin F, et al. Low B6 levels in depressed outpatients. Biol Psychiatry 19(4):613-16, 1984.
  18. Russ CS et al. Vitamin B6 status of depressed and obsessive-compulsive patients. Nutr Rep Int 27(4):867-73, 1983.
  19. Carney MW, Ravindran A, Rinsler MG, et al. Thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine deficiency in psychiatric inpatients. Br J Psychiatry 141:271-2, 1982.
  20. Carney MW, Williams DG, Sheffield BF. Thiamin and pyridoxine lack in newly-admitted psychiatric patients. Br J Psychiatry 135:249-54, 1979.
  21. Nobbs B. Pyridoxal phosphate status in clinical depression. Letter. Lancet i:405, 1974.
  22. Bermond P. Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 4(1-2):45-54, 1982.
  23. Adams PW, Wynn V, Rose DP, et al. Effect of pyridoxine hydrocholoride (vitamin B6) upon depression associated with oral contraception. Lancet ii:899-904, 1973.
  24. Adams PW, Wynn V, Seed M, Folkard J. Vitamin B6, depression, and oral contraception. Letter. Lancet ii:516-17, 1974.
  25. Benton D, Haller J, Fordy J. Vitamin supplementation for 1 year improves mood. Neuropsychobiology 32(2):98-105, 1995.
  26. Hallert C, Astrom J, Walan A. Reversal of psychopathology in adult coeliac disease with the aid of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Scand J Gastroenterol 18(2):299-304, 1983.
  27. Yaryura-Tobias JA. Presentation to the Third World Congress of Biological Psychiatry, Stockholm ?reported in Clinical Psychiatrty News. September, 1981.
  28. Yaryura-Tobias JA, Bhagavan HN. L-tryptophan in obsessive-compulsive disorders. Am J Psychiatry 134(11):1298-9, 1977.
  29. Mira M, Stewart PM, Abraham SF. Vitamin and trace element status in premenstrual syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 47(4):636-41, 1988.
  30. Gallant MP, Bowering J, Short SH, et al. Pyridoxine and magnesium status in women with premenstrual syndrome. Nutr Res 7:243-52, 1987.
  31. Stewart A. Clinical and biochemical effects of nutritional supplementation on the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med 32(6):435-41, 1987.
  32. Richie CD, Singkamani R. Plasma pyridoxal-5?phosphate in women with the premenstrual syndrome. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40C:75-80, 1986.
  33. Parry GJ, Bredesen DE. Sensory neuropathy with low-dose pyridoxine. Neurology 35:1466-8, 1985; Waterston JA, Gilligan BS. Pyridoxine neuropathy. Med J Aust 146:640-2, 1987.
  34. Guy Abraham ?personal communication reported in Piesse JW. Nutrition factors in the premenstrual syndrome: A review. Int Clin Nutr Rev 4(2):54-81, 1984.
  35. Abraham GE. Nutrition and the premenstrual tension syndromes. J Appl Nutr 36(2):103-17, 1985; Hargrove JT, Abraham GT. Effect of vitamin B6 on infertility in women with the premenstrual syndrome. Infertility 2:315: 1979.
  36. Leklem JE. Vitamin B6: The pill, pregnancy and premenstrual syndrome. Abstract. J Am Coll Nutr. 11(5):624, 1992.
  37. Kleijnen J, Ter Riet G, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome ?a review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 97(9):847-52, 1990.

Berman MK et al. Vitamin B-6 in premenstrual syndrome. J Am Diet Assoc 90(6):859-61, 1990.

  1. Doll H, Brown S, Thurston A, Vessey M. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and the premenstrual syndrome: A randomized crossover trial. J R Coll Gen Pract 39:364-8, 1989.
  2. Brush MG, Bennett T, Hansen K. Pyridoxine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: A retrospective survey in 630 patients. Br J Clin Pract 42(11):448-52, 1988.
  3. Kendall KE, Schnurr PP. The effects of vitamin B6 supplementation on premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 70(2):145-9, 1987.
  4. David R. Rubinow, biological psychiatry branch, National Institute of Mental Health (USA) ?quoted by Clin Psychiatry News, December, 1987.
  5. Hagen I et al. No effect of vitamin B-6 against premenstrual tension: A controlled clinical study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 64:667, 1985.
  6. Williams MJ, Harris RI, Dean BC. Controlled trial of pyridoxine in the premenstrual syndrome. J Int Med Res 13:174-9, 1985.
  7. Barr W. Pyridoxine supplements in the premenstrual syndrome. Practitioner 228:425-7, 1984.
  8. Mattes JA, Martin D. Pyridoxine in premenstrual depression. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 36(2):131-3, 1982.
  9. Abraham GE, Hargrove JT. Effect of vitamin B-6 on premenstrual symptomatology in women with premenstrual tension syndrome: A double-blind crossover study. Infertility 3:155-65, 1980.
  10. Day JB. Clinical trials in the premenstrual syndrome. Curr Med Res Opin (Suppl 6) 5:40-5, 1979.
  11. Kerr GD. The management of the premenstrual syndrome. Curr Med Res Opin (Suppl 4) 4:29-34, 1977.
  12. Stokes J, Mendels J. Pyridoxine and premenstrual tension. Letter. Lancet i:1177-8, 1972.
  13. Piesse JW. Nutrition factors in the premenstrual syndrome. Int Clin Nutr Rev 4(2):54-81, 1984.
  14. Lee CM, Leklem JE. Blood magnesium constancy with vitamin B-6 supplementation in pre- and post-menopausal women. Ann Clin Lab Sci 14(2):151-4, 1984.
  15. Abraham GE et al. Effect of vitamin B6 on plasma and red blood cell magnesium levels in premenopausal women. Ann Clin Lab Sci 11(4):333-6, 1981.
  16. Holley J et al. Effect of vitamin B6 nutritional status on the uptake of [3H]-oestradiol into the uterus, liver and hypothalamus of the rat. J Steroid Biochem 18:161-6, 1983.
  17. Pfeiffer CC, Audette L. Pyroluria ?Zinc and B6 deficiencies. Int Clin Nutr Rev 8(3):107-10; 1988.
  18. Pfeiffer CC. The schizophrenias ?6. Biol Psychiatry 2:773-5, 1976.
  19. Pfeiffer CC, Bacchi D. Copper, zinc, manganese, niacin and pyridoxine in the schizophrenias. J Appl Nutr 27:9-39, 1975.
  20. Pfeiffer CC. Observations on trace and toxic elements in hair and serum. J Orthomol Psychiatry 3(4):259-64, 1974.
  21. Cruz R, Vogel WH. Pyroluria: A poor marker in chronic schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 135(10):1239-40, 1978.
  22. Parry GJ. Sensory neuropathy with low-dose pyridoxine. Neurology 35:1466:8, 1985.
  23. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Niacin and vitamin B6 in mental functioning: a review of controlled trials in humans. Biol Psychiatry 29(9):931-41, 1991.
  24. Brooks SC et al. An unusual schizophrenic illness responsive to pyridoxine HCl (B6) subsequent to phenothiazine and butyrophenone toxicities. Biol Psychiatry 18(11):1321-8, 1983.
  25. Yamauchi M. Effects of L-dopa and vitamin B6 on electroencephalograms of schizophrenic patients: A preliminary report. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica 30(2):121-51, 1976.
  26. Sandyk R, Pardeshi R. Pyridoxine improves drug-induced parkinsonism and psychosis in a schizophrenic patients. J Neurosci 53(3-4):225-32, 1990.
  27. Petrie WM, Ban TA, Anath JV. The use of nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 16(4):245-50, 1981.

65. Ananth JV, Ban TA, Lehmann HE. Potentiation of therapeutic effects of nicotinic acid by pyridoxine in chronic schizophrenics. Can Psychiatr Assoc J 18:377-83, 1973.

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