EEG brain-to-computer interfaces: Electroencephalography remains the most feasible practice of executing and implementing brain to brain interfaces. It represents the best temporal-resolution tool for getting a picture of the brain in action, is portable, non-invasive and extremely affordable compared to other methods.
Scientifically viable and mainstream today; financially viable in 2021.
High-resolution fMRI: The next generation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging involves increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of the imagery. We are likely to see a 14-tesla machines becoming common (as opposed to today’s 3-tesla).
Scientifically viable today; mainstream in 2023; financially viable in 2024.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation: TMS is a noninvasive method to cause depolarization or hyperpolarization in the neurons of the brain using electromagnetic induction to induce weak electric currents using a rapidly changing magnetic field. This can cause activity in specific or general parts of the brain with minimal discomfort, allowing the functioning and interconnections of the brain to be studied.
Scientifically viable today; mainstream in 2019; financially viable in 2022 .
Optogenetic implants in humans: The combination of genetic and optical methods to control specific events in targeted cells of living tissue, even within freely moving mammals and other animals, with the temporal precision (millisecond timescale) needed to keep pace with functioning intact biological systems.
Scientifically viable in 2021; mainstream and financially viable in 2026.
Next-generation brain-to-computer interfaces: Hypothetical interfaces to be used for assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions and communicate thoughts and intentions to the Internet.
Scientifically viable in 2020; mainstream in 2022; financially viable in 2027.
Brain-to-brain interfaces: The hypothetical implementation of brain interfaces that translate thoughts, sensations or impulses into digital signal, converting the data back into the recipient’s brain to enable a certain response from both ends. Loosely interpreted as telepathy, brain interfaces would be able to transmit information from one person so another without any mediation other than the internet, allowing the brain on the receiving end to perform behavioural tasks without training.
Scientifically viable in 2025; mainstream in 2026; financially viable in 2027.
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