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Technical Background for the Visual Neural Implant

This section includes citations of articles that discuss the technical
aspects of the cortical-implant visual prosthesis.

Bak, M. et al. "Visual Sensations Produced by Intracortical Microstimulation of the Human Occipital Cortex". Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 28 (1990): 257-59.

Ballantyne, John C. et al. Electrical Auditory Stimulation in the Management of Profound Hearing Loss. Ashford, Kent: Headley, 1978.

Barinaga, Marcia. "Turning Thoughts into Actions". Science 286 (29 October 1999): 888-890.

Brindley, G. S. and W. S. Lewin. "The Sensations Produced by Electrical Stimulation of the Visual Cortex". Journal of Physiology 196 (1968): 479-93.

Cha, K., K. W. Horch and R. A. Normann. "Simulation of a Phosphene-based Visual Field: Visual Acuity in a Pixelized Vision System". Annals of Biomedical Engineering 20 (1992): 439-449.

Clark, Graeme, et al. The University of Melbourne-Nucleus Multi-Electrode Cochlear Implant. Basel: Karger, 1987.

Clark, Graeme M. and Robert S. Cowan, eds. International Cochlear Implant, Speech and Hearing Symposium--Melbourne 1994. St. Louis, MO: Annals Publishing Co., 1995.

Delbeke, J. et al. "Use of Surface Electrodes to Assess the Electronical Excitability of Pre-chiasmatic Visual Pathways". Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 435 (1998): R244.

De Volder, A. G. et al. "Brain Energy Metabolism in Early Blind Subjects: Neural Activity in the Visual Cortex". Brain Research 750 (1997): 235-244.

De Volder, A. G. et al. "Changes in Occipital Cortex Activity in Early Blind Humans Using a Sensory Substitution Device". Brain Research 826 (1999): 128-134.

Dobelle, W. H. "Artificial Vision for the Blind by Connecting a Television Camera to the Visual Cortex". ASAIO Journal (American Society of Artificial Internal Organs). 2000. 30 pars. 22 December 2003.

Dobelle, W. H. and M. G. Mladejovsky. "Phosphenes Produced by Electrical Stimulation of Human Occipital Cortex, and Their Application to the Development of a Prosthesis for the Blind". Journal of Physiology 243 (1974): 553-76.

Dobelle, W. H., M. G. Mladejovsky, and J. P. Girvin. "Artificial Vision for the Blind: Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex Offers Hope for a Functional Prosthesis". Science 183. 4123 (1974): 440-444.

Eggermont, J. J. "Neural Interaction in Cat Primary Auditory-cortex -- Dependence on Recording Depth, Electrode Separation, and Age". Journal of Neurophysiology 68 (1992): 1216-1228.

"F. D. A. Establishes Performance Standard for Electrode Lead Wires and Patient Cables". Health Devices 27.1 (Jan. 1998): 34-6.

Fraysse, Bernard G. and O. Deguine. Cochlear Implants New Perspectives : International Symposium, Toulouse, June 2-3, 1992. Basel; New York: Karger, 1993.

Handbook of Biomaterials Evaluation: Scientific, Technical, and Clinical Testing of Implant Materials. Ed. Andreas Con Recum. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis, 1999.

Hanna, Kathi E., Frederick J.Manning, Peter Bouxsein, and Andrew Pope (eds). Innovation and Invention In Medical Devices: Workshop Summary. Based on a Workshop of the Roundtable on Research and Development of Drugs, Biologics, and Medical Devices. Board on Health Sciences Policy. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

Harvey, Jean-Francois and Mohammed Sawan. "Image Acquisition and Reduction Dedicated to a Visual Implant". 18th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Amsterdam 1996: Aids for the Visually Impaired. 403-404.

Honjo, Iwao and H. Takahashi, eds. Cochlear Implant and Related Sciences Update: 1st Asia Pacific Symposium on Cochlear Implant and Related Sciences, Kyoto, April 3-5, 1996. Basel: Karger, 1997.

Hubel, D. Eye, Brain, and Vision. New York: Scientific American Library, 1988.

Jacques, Steven. "Optical Techniques for Tissue Science and Engineering". Proceedings of SPIE -- Volume 3863. 1999 International Conference on Biomedical Optics. Qingming Luo et al. (eds.) September 1999: 2-7.

Kao, G., P. Probert and D. Lee. "Object Recognition with FM Sonar: An Assistive Device for Blind and Visually-Impaired People". AAAI Fall Symposium on Developing Assistive Technology for People with Disabilities MIT. Cambridge, MA, Nov. 9-11, 1996.

Kay, L. "Electronic Aids for Blind Persons: An Interdisciplinary Subject''. IEE Proceedings, Pt. A, 131 (Sept. 1984): 559-576.

Kileny, P. R. et al. "Effects of Preoperative Electrical Stimulability and Historical Factors on Performance with Multichannel Cochlear Implant". Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 100 (1991): 563-568.

Korhonen, T. "A Method for Rapid Implantation of Multielectrode Systems". Physiology & Behavior 49 (1991): 401-403.

Krishnamurthy, E. and K. Adhavan Prakash. "Visual and Auditory Aspects of Learning--BME in Unmasking Silent Pathways for Rehabilitation". Proceedings of the 1st 1995 Regional Conference, IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society and 14th Conference of the Biomedical Engineering Society of India Feb. 15-18 1995. New Delhi, India: IEEE, 1995. 3.87-3.88.

McCreery, D. B., L. A. Bullara, and W. F. Agnew. "Neuronal Activity Evoked by Chronically Implanted Intracortical Microelectrodes". Experimental Neurology 92 .1 (1986): 147-161.

Mortimer, J. T., C. N. Shealy and M. T. Senno. "Experimental Non-destructive Electrical Stimulation of the Brain and Spinal Cord". Journal of Neurosurgery 32 (1970): 553-59.

National Institutes of Health. "Cochlear Implants in Adults and Children". Consensus Statements. NIH Consensus Development Program. NIH Consensus Development Conference Statement, May 15-17, 1995. 13 sects. 22 December 2003.

Neural Prostheses. Eds. W. F. Agnew and D. B. McCreery. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.

Nordhausen, Craig T., Edwin M. Maynard, and Richard A. Normann. "Research Report: Single Unit Recording Capabilities of a 100 Microelectrode Array". Brain Research 726 (1996): 129-140.

Nordhausen, Craig T., Patrick Rousche, and Richard A. Normann. "Chronic Recordings of Visually Evoked Responses Using the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array". Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Oct. 28-31 1993. San Diego, CA. Vol. 15, 1993. 1391-1392.

---. "Optimizing Recording Capabilities of the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array". Brain Research 637 (1994): 27-36.

Normann, Richard A. "A Penetrating, Cortical Electrode Array: Design Considerations". Proceedings from the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Nov. 1990. 918 - 920.

---. "Visual Neuroprosthetics--Functional Vision for the Blind". IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 14.1 (Jan-Feb 1995): 77-83.

Normann, Richard et al. "Cortical Implants for the Blind". IEEE Spectrum 33.5 (May 1996): 54-59.

---. "A Silicon Based Multielectrode Array: The Foundation for a Cortically Based Visual Prosthetic". Vision Research 36 (1996): 1146+.

Owens, Elmer and Dorcas K. Kessler. Cochlear Implants in Young Deaf Children. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989.

Ponnavaillo, M. and V. P. Kumar. "The Artificial Eye (Seeing Takes More Than Just Believing)". IEEE Potentials 18.5 (Dec. 1999-Jan. 2000): 33-35.

Roco, Mihail and William Sims (eds). Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science. World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC): Arlington, VA, 2002.

Romero, E. et al. "Neural Morphological Effects of Long Term Implantation of the Self-sizing Spiral Cuff Nerve Electrode". Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 39 (2001): 90-100.

Ronner, S. F. and B. G. Lee. "Excitation of Visual Cortex Neurons by Local Intracortical Microstimulation". Experimental Neurology 81 (1983): 376-395.

Rousche, Patrick J. and Richard A. Normann. "A System for Impact Insertion of a 100 Electrode Array into Cortical Tissue". Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 12.2 (1990): 0494-0495.

---. "A Method for Pneumatically Inserting an Array of Penetrating Electrodes into Cortical Tissue". Annals of Biomedical Engineering 20.4 (1992): 413-22.

---. "Chronic Recording Capability of the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array in Cat Sensory Cortex". Journal of Neuroscience Methods 82 (1998): 1-15.

---. "Chronic Intracortical Microstimulation (ICMS) of Cat Sensory Cortex Using the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array". IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 7 (1999): 56-68.

Rutten, W. L. C., H. J. Vanwier and J. H. M. Put. "Sensitivity and Selectivity of Intraneural Stimulation Using a Silicon Electrode Array". IEEE Transactions On Biomedical Engineering 38 (1991): 192-198.

Sauberman, H. R. "Approval Process for Implants in Otolaryngology". Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 28.2 (April 1995): 235-44.

Saunders, F. A. "Information Transmission Across the Skin: High-resolution Sensory Aids for the Deaf and the Blind". International Journal of Neuroscience 19 (1983): 21-28.

Schmidt, E. M. et al. "Feasibility of a Visual Prosthesis for the Blind Based on Intracortical Microstimulation of the Visual Cortex". Brain 119 (1996): 507-22.

Scott, L. "Liability Concerns about Implanted Material May Hurt Device Availability". Modern Healthcare 23.26 (28 June 1993): 90.

Service, Robert F. "Bypassing Nervous System Damage with Electronics". Science 284 (23 April 1999): 579.

Shaw, G. L. et al. "Rhythmic and Patterned Neuronal Firing in Visual Cortex". Neurological Research 15 (1993): 46-50.

Skinner, M. W. et al. "Performance of Postlinguistically Deaf Adults with the Wearable Speech Processor (wsp iii) and Mini Speech Processor (msp) of the Nucleus Multielectrode Cochlear Implant". Ear and Hearing 12 (1991): 3-22.

---. "Use of Test-Retest Measures to Evaluate Performance Stability in Adults with Cochlear Implants". Ear and Hearing 16 (1995): 187-197.

Smith, K. "Seeing with Microcircuits''. New Scientist (7 February 1977): 258-260.

Stebbins, W. The Design and Conduct of Sensory Experiments. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.

Sterling, T. D. et al, eds. Visual Prosthesis : The Interdisciplinary Dialogue: Proceedings of the Second Conference on Visual Prosthesis. University of Chicago. 1969. New York; London: Academic Press, 1971.

Sugihara, H. et al. "Formation of Neural Connections Between Aggregates of Rat Visual Cortical Cells Cultured in a Multielectrode Dish". Society for Neuroscience. Abstracts 18 (1992): 219.

Suzuki, Jun Ichi, ed. Middle Ear Implant: Implantable Hearing Aids. Basel: Karger, 1988.

Trullemans, Charles and Claude Veraart. A Novel Approach to a Prosthesis for the Blind. Press conference. MiViP: Microsystems-based Visual Prosthesis (An ESPRIT Project of the European Commission). Undated. 8 sects. 22 December 2003.

Vallabhanath, P. et al. "Feasibility of an Intracortical Visual Prosthesis for the Blind: II. Visual Sensations Produced by Cortical Stimulation". Society for Neuroscience. Abstracts 18, Pt 2 (1992): 1396.

Veraart, C. "Neurophysiological Approach to the Design of Visual Prostheses: A Theoretical Discussion". Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology 13 (1989): 57-62.

Veraart, C. et al. "Optic Nerve Electrical Stimulation in a Retinitis Pigmentosa Blind Volunteer". Society for Neuroscience. Abstracts 24 (1998): 2097.

---. "Visual Sensations Produced by Optic Nerve Stimulation Using an Implanted Self-Sizing Spiral Cuff Electrode". Brain Research 813 (1998): 181-186.

---. "Chronic Electrical Stimulation of the Optic Nerve in a Retinitis Pigmentosa Blind Volunteer". Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 40 (1999): S783.

---. "Selective Stimulation of the Human Optic Nerve". Proceedings of the 4th Conference of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society, Sendai, Japan, August 27-29, 1999. 57-59.

Walter, P., K. Heimann, and M. Vobig. "Retinal Implants: The Ophthalmologist's Viewpoint". Human Communication and Cybernetics. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. 12-15 Oct. 1999. Vol. 4. Tokyo, Japan: IEEE, 1999. IV-400 --IV 403.

Wanet-Defalque, M. C., A. Vanlierde and G. Michaux. "Mental Representation of Spaces and Objects in an Historical Site: Influence of Visual Impairments". Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 95 (2001): 172-175.

Warren, David H. and Edward R. Strelow, eds. Electronic Spatial Sensing for the Blind : Contributions from Perception, Rehabilitation, and Computer Vision. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Visual Spatial Prosthesis for the Blind (1984: Lake Arrowhead, Calif.). Hingham, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1985.

Weinstein, Allan, United States, and National Bureau of Standards. Implant Retrieval
Material and Biological Analysis : Proceedings of a Conference Held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD 20234, May 1-3, 1980. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, 1981.

Wyatt, John and Joseph Rizzo. "Ocular Implants for the Blind". IEEE Spectrum 33.5 (May 1996): 47-53.

Yuen, T. G. "Histological Evaluation of Neural Damage from Electrical Stimulation: Considerations for the Selection of Parameters for Clinical Application". Neurosurgery 9.3 (1981): 292-98.

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