Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease. This means there are scattered collections of mixed inflammatory cells (granulomas) affecting many different parts of the body. Characteristically these are non-caseating epithelioid granulomas (a pathological description distinguishing sarcoidal granulomas from the caseating or cheese-like granulomas seen in tuberculosis).
Sarcoidosis usually starts in the lungs or lymph nodes in the chest. It is thought that inflammation of the alveoli (tiny sac like air spaces in lungs where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged) is the start of the disease process in the lungs. This may either clear up on its own or lead to granuloma formation and fibrosis (scarring). Over 90% patients have some type of lung problem. Once considered a rare disease, sarcoidosis is now the most common of the fibrotic lung disorders.
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