A lipoma is a non-cancerous tumour that is made up of fat cells. It slowly grows under the skin in the subcutaneous tissue. A person may have a single lipoma or may have many lipomas. They are very common.
Lipomas can occur in people of all ages, however, they tend to develop in adulthood and are most noticeable during middle age. They affect both sexes equally, although solitary lipomas are more common in women whilst multiple lipomas occur more frequently in men.
The cause of lipomas is unknown. It is possible there may be genetic involvement as many patients with lipomas come from a family with a history of these tumours. Sometimes an injury such as a blunt blow to part of the body may trigger growth of a lipoma.
People are often unaware of lipomas until they have grown large enough to become visible and palpable. This growth occurs slowly over several years. Some features of lipomas include:
- A dome-shaped or egg-shaped lump about 2-10 cm in diameter (some may grow even larger)
- It feels soft and smooth and is easily moved under the skin with the fingers
- Some have a rubbery or doughy consistency
- They are most common on the shoulders, neck, trunk and arms, but they can occur anywhere on the body where fat tissue is present.
Most lipomas are symptomless, but some are painful on applying pressure. Lipomas that are tender or painful are usually angiolipomas (adiposis dolorosa or Dercum disease). This means the lipoma has an increased number of small blood vessels.
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