Skin Diseases

Skin Diseases

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Acral Lentiginous Melanoma


Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a special presentation of cutaneous melanoma arising on the sole, palm, fingernail or toenail bed. ALM occurs most often in Asians, sub-Saharan Africans, and African Americans, comprising 50 to 70% of the melanomas of the skin found in these populations. It occurs most often in older males (60 years) and often grows slowly over a period of years. The delay in development of the tumor is the reason these tumors are often discovered only when nodules appear or in case of nail involvement, the nail is shed; therefore, the prognosis is poor. The tumor may be misdiagnosed as a verruca plantaris, subungual hematoma, or an onychomycosis of the fingernail or the nail of the large toe. Subungual melanoma most often occurs on the nail bed of the thumb or large toe. The clinical features are less striking than in other melanomas, appearing in the radial growth phase as macules: dark brown, blue-black, or black, with little variegation and often ill-defined.


Causes:

Relatively rare compared to SSM in whites. Probably same incidence in Asians/blacks who have fewer melanomas in general. The pigmented macules that are frequently seen on the soles of African blacks could be comparable with Clark's dysplastic melanocytic nevi.


Symptoms:

* asymmetry of lesion
* border irregularity
* bleeding
* crusting
* color change or variegation
* longitudinal tan, black, or brown streak on a finger or toe nail
* pigmentation of proximal nail fold
* areas of dark pigmentation on palms of hands or soles of feet

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