Research done by Sir Michael Marmot of the United Kingdom, summarized in his wonderful book, The Status Syndrome ? as well as in research by numerous social psychologists ? suggests that workplace stress is caused by the following:
- having little or no control over one's job, including what you do, when you do it, and how you are evaluated;
- having little or no correspondence between effort and rewards, so that job effort and performance does not necessarily result in corresponding recognition;
- living in a random, unpredictable world in which things "happen" to you that are consequential and over which you have little control ? for example, suffering from the effect of economic fluctuations;
- not having social support (e.g., colleagues to whom you can turn for both substantive help and social relationships and friendship) in the working environment.
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